End stage renal disease or ESRD is a term used for advanced kidney failure which is usually irreversible and needs to be treated with either dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Dialysis is a term for different methods used to filter the blood and remove toxins that can then keep a patient alive in the absence of working kidneys.
Transplantation is a surgical procedure that is performed to implant a kidney from either a living or a deceased donor in a patient with ESRD.
EXTENT OF ESRD IN THE US
According to the most recent data, approximately 660.000 individuals have ESRD in the US.
Almost 58 % of these patients are male and most of the patients are between the ages of 45 to 64 (44 %).
Six out of 10 patients are white and three out of 10 are African-Americans.
ESRD is increasing by 5 % every year.
The most common condition leading to ESRD is diabetes (37 %), followed by high blood pressure (25 %), glomerulonephritis (17 %) and cystic kidney disease (5 %). Other less common conditions are responsible for the remainder of cases.
Approximately 90,000 patients die annually due to ESRD.
After one year of treatment, those on dialysis have a 20-25 % mortality rate, with a five year survival rate of 35 %. On the other hand, patients who have received a transplant have a 3 % mortality rate after 5 years.
COST OF TREATMENT OF ESRD IN THE US
According to data released by Medicare, approximately $ 31 billion was spent in 2016 for the treatment of ESRD.
Patients with ESRD are 1 % of the US Medicare population but account for 7 % of the Medicare budget.
Hemodialysis treatment costs an average of $ 89,000 per patient every year.
Kidney transplant costs an average of $ 32,000 (surgical cost) and $ 25,000 per year post-surgery.